There are many different types of heating systems. Central heating is often used in cold climates to heat private houses and public buildings. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home . Forced-air systems send heated air through ductwork. During warm weather the same ductwork can be used for air conditioning. The forced air can also be filtered or passed through air cleaners. Heat can also be provided electrically by resistive heating, in which conductive filaments are heated by the passage of electricity. This is used in baseboard heaters, portable heaters, and as backup or supplemental heating for heat pump (or reverse heating) systems.
The heating elements (radiators or vents) should be located in the coldest part of the room, typically next to the windows, to minimize condensation and offset the convective air current formed in the room due to the air next to the window becoming negatively buoyant due to the cold glass.


Devices that direct vents away from windows to prevent "wasted" heat defeat this design intent. Cold air drafts can contribute significantly to subjectively feeling colder than the average room temperature, and for this reason it is important to control air leaks from outside in addition to properly designing the heating system.

Air conditioning

An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling, ventilation, and humidity control for all or part of a house or building.
The refrigeration cycle uses four essential elements to create a cooling effect. The system refrigerant starts its cycle in a gaseous state. The compressor pumps the refrigerant gas up to a high pressure and temperature. From there it enters a heat exchanger (sometimes called a "condensing coil" or condenser) where it loses energy (heat) to the outside. In the process the refrigerant condenses into a liquid. The liquid refrigerant is returned indoors to another heat exchanger ("evaporating coil" or evaporator). A metering device allows the liquid to flow in at a low pressure at the proper rate. As the liquid refrigerant evaporates it absorbs energy (heat) from the inside air, returns to the compressor, and repeats the cycle. In the process heat is absorbed from indoors and transferred outdoors, resulting in cooling of the building.
In variable climates, the system may include a reversing valve that automatically switches from heating in winter to cooling in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the heat pump refrigeration cycle is changed from cooling to heating or vice versa. This allows a residence or facility to be heated and cooled by a single piece of equipment, by the same means, and with the same hardware.
Central, 'all-air' air conditioning systems (or package systems) with a combined outdoor condenser/evaporator unit are often installed in modern residences, offices, and public buildings, but are difficult to retrofit (install in a building that was not designed to receive it) because of the bulky air ducts required to carry the needed air to heat or cool an area. The duct system must be carefully maintained to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria
Dehumidification in an air conditioning system is provided by the evaporator. Since the evaporator operates at a temperature below dew point, moisture in the air condenses on the evaporator coil tubes. A dehumidifier is an air-conditioner-like device that controls the humidity of a room or building. It is often employed in basements which have a higher relative humidity because of their lower temperature (and propensity for damp floors and walls). In food retailing establishments, large open chiller cabinets are highly effective at dehumidifying the internal air. Conversely, a humidifier increases the humidity of a building.

Generally the problems with Heating/AC involve

Problems With Heating/AC

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